HOW LESS BECAME MORE:
WIND, POWER AND UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES
IN THE COLORADO ENERGY MARKET
BENTEK Energy, LLC
This report, which examines four years of Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) hourly operational history, illustrates how coal cycling, which in part results from wind generation, negates the emission benefits of wind energy.
There are national implications as well. Congress and the Obama Administration are considering a national RPS. Before such a national standard is implemented, there is a compelling need tobetter understand how intermittent sources of
energy such as wind can be integrated with existing nuclear, coal and natural gas capacity without producing cycling-induced emissions problems.
The use of wind energy by PSCO has resulted in increased levels of SO2, NOX and CO2 from coal plants in the non-attainment area. Wind-induced coal cycling in ERCOT has resulted in increased SO2 and NOX, with only minimal savings of CO2.
The mechanism driving increased emissions is the need to cycle coal facilities in order to accommodate wind generation, which is considered a “must take” resource due to the RPS mandates.
When coal plants are cycled, the heat rate rises, resulting in higher emissions
of SO2, NOX and CO2 than would have been the case if the units had not been cycled. This problem can persist for up to 24 hours after cycling the facility, increasing emissions even further.
HOW LESS BECAME MORE:
WIND, POWER AND UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES
IN THE COLORADO ENERGY MARKET
BENTEK Energy, LLC
Wind energy promises a clean, renewable resource that uses no fossil fuel and generates zero emissions. Careful examination of the data suggests that the numbers do not add up as expected.
The “must take” provisions of Colorado’s Renewable Portfolio Standard require that other sources of generation, such as coal plants, must be “cycled” to accommodate wind power. This cycling makes coal
generating units operate much less efficiently…so inefficiently, that these units produce significantly greater emissions.
This study reviews the data that supports this conclusion, outlines mitigation measures which can be used to realize the full potential of wind generation, and provides recommendations for policy makers.
WIND FARM SWINDLE-Tony Elliott -The Cypress Times
The duping of Americans by the environmentalist movement continues, as wind farms use as much electricity from the fossil fuel grid as they produce. This article comes from reliable research derived for what I call the Wind Farm Swindle. The proof that it is a swindle, has been gathered from the very annals of the wind farm movement and from the companies involved in Turbine produced electricity itself.
If you've ever driven close to the huge wind turbine, I'm sure some of you have wondered how long it must take for the wind to start turning such large blades on some of these windmills and how they are stopped, when the wind gets too high for them to operate.
You won't hear anybody in the environmental movement or the renewable energy business tell you this, but as it turns out, all wind turbines use about the same amount of grid electricity as they produce. Large wind turbines require huge amounts of fossil fuel grid electricity to operate. Wind farms have to use electricity from the grid and of course, this large amount of grid electricity is never accounted for in relation to output figures
Wind turbine functions that use fueled derived electricity are as follows:
•yaw mechanism (to keep the blade assembly perpendicular to the wind; also to untwist the electrical cables in the tower when necessary) -- the nacelle (turbine housing) and blades together, weigh 92 tons on a GE 1.5-MW turbine
•blade-pitch control (to keep the rotors spinning at a regular rate)
•lights, controllers, communication, sensors, metering, data collection, etc.
•heating the blades -- this may require 10%-20% of the turbine's nominal (rated) power
•heating and dehumidifying the nacelle -- according to Danish manufacturer Vestas, "power consumption for heating and dehumidification of the nacelle, must be expected during periods with increased humidity, low temperatures and low wind speeds"
•oil heater, pump, cooler, and filtering system in gearbox
•hydraulic brake (to lock the blades in very high wind)
•thyristors (to graduate the connection and disconnection between generator and grid) -- 1%-2% of the energy passing through is lost
•magnetizing the stator -- the induction generators used in most large grid-connected turbines require a "large" amount of continuous electricity from the grid to actively power the magnetic coils around the asynchronous "cage rotor" that encloses the generator shaft. At the rated wind speeds, it helps keep the rotor speed constant, and as the wind starts blowing it helps start the rotor turning (see next item); in the rated wind speeds, the stator may use power equal to 10% of the turbine's rated capacity in slower winds, possibly much more.
Using the generator as a motor (to help the blades start to turn when the wind speed is low or, as many suspect, to maintain the illusion that the facility is producing electricity when it is not, particularly during important site tours.) It surely seems possible that the grid-magnetized stator must work to help keep the 40-ton blade assembly spinning. Along with the gears which increase the blade rpm some 50 times for the generator, not just at cut-in (or for show in even less wind) but at least some of the way up towards the full rated wind speed; it may also be spinning the blades and rotor shaft to prevent warping when there is no wind.
What all this amounts to is, each wind turbine actually uses more than 60% of its rated capacity in its own operation. Thus, each wind farm as a whole, produces only less than 25% of its annual rated capacity. This means that wind farms use twice the amount of grid electricity for every amount of wind-generated electricity produced.
I'm sure this is news to most Americans, who thought and naturally assumed that wind turbines only produced electricity and it never occurred to a normal person that these devices would actually require Fossil Fueled electricity to operate. Since no records of electricity usage is ever kept at these wind farms, this alarming fact has never become public knowledge.
Since it is admitted by everyone that wind generated electricity only amounts to around 1% of our total produced electricity, these hidden facts bring that figure down to a negative percentage at best. Using more electricity than it produces, green electricity is the reason for Cap and Trade, since green credits can be bought and sold to the highest bidder.
Killing perhaps millions of endangered bird species per year, degrading human health in the same manner as is experienced with people living near high voltage power lines. Ruining many of the earth's most scenic spots, with these huge steel monstrosities and above all, doing nothing in alleviating any fossil fuel electricity usage is the reason these expensive and dangerous eyesores must go.
In today's economy, we cannot afford to spend billions of dollars on a Nigerian like fraud, such as the wind farm swindle.
PENNSYLVANIA WINDTURBINES DEADLY TO BATS.......COSTLY TO FARMERS
Sunday, July 17, 2011
By Erich Schwartzel, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
If one turbine kills 25 bats in a year, that means one turbine accounted for about 17 million uneaten bugs in 2010.
The 420 wind turbines now in use across Pennsylvania killed more than 10,000 bats last year -- mostly in the late summer months, according to the state Game Commission. That's an average of 25 bats per turbine per year, and the Nature Conservancy predicts as many as 2,900 turbines will be set up across the state by 2030.
This is a bad time to be a bat.
It may seem like a good thing to those who fear the flying mammals, but the wind farm mortality rate is an acute example of how harnessing natural energy can lead to disruptions in the circle of life -- and the cycle of business. This chain of events mixes biology and economics: Bat populations go down, bug populations go up and farmers are left with the bill for more pesticide and crops (which accounts for those pricey tomatoes in Kansas).
Wind industry executives are shelling out millions of dollars on possible solutions that don't ruin their bottom line, even as wind farms in the area are collaborating with the state Game Commission to work carcass-combing into daily operations.
Phase 1 Report
Literature and Jurisdictional Review
ONTARIO MINISTRY OF ENVIROMENT
Dr. Nina Pierpont
Turbulent Wind Turbine Wakes Studied
Much like the jet engines of a commercial airliner leave “jet wash” in their wake, wind turbines also disturb the air behind them as they spin, if to a lesser degree.
Japanese government plans Wind Turbine Syndrome epidemiological study.
The Environment Ministry will launch its first major study into the influence of wind turbines on people’s health next year, it has been learned.
Much is expected of wind power as a source of clean energy, but people living near wind power facilities are increasingly complaining of health problems. The low-frequency sound produced by the wind turbines at such facilities–sound that is difficult to discern with the naked ear–is suspected of causing such conditions as insomnia, tinnitus and hand tremors.
Due to a lack of substantiating data, the ministry has deemed it necessary to study the matter. It will launch a four-year examination of all 1,517 wind turbines in the country in April.
The study will try to ascertain to what extent health problems are being caused by the low-frequency sound, through such means as questioning local residents.
It will examine the relationship between wind turbines’ operating hours and the times of day when people’s health deteriorates. It also will make continual measurements of such elements as the level of the low-frequency sound.
The study’s attempt to determine the causality between the low-frequency sound and health problems will take into account such factors as weather conditions and the distance between homes and wind power facilities.
Vestas recommends relative noise limits that take into account local background noise
levels (where new wind turbines are sited near existing ones, already present turbine
noise should not be calculated as part of the background noise). Vestas believes this
type of regulation is the most effective and flexible, in that it ensures minimal noise disturbance
for wind turbine neighbours while allowing turbines to be located in relatively noisy
areas (areas with industry or roads, for example) that are rich in wind resources. Such
areas are also often close to existing electrical grids, which can minimize the cost of connecting
wind turbines to the grid.
Vestas also recommends that governments supplement relative noise limits with a low
absolute maximum limit in areas of very low background noise (e.g. quiet countryside),
which ensures minimal noise disturbance for turbine neighbours also in these places.
Relative noise limits: turbine noise emission must not exceed the level of background
noise (both turbine and background noise are measured as a function of wind
speed); such limits are often supplemented with a low absolute maximum noise limit
to cover those situations in which turbines are located in areas of very low background noise;